Jean-François Guégan, from UMR MIVEGEC, was invited to give two lectures in Mexico where he presented the work carried out within the framework of the LabEx CEBA
The first conference1 was given during the joint Wildlife Diseases international congress, the pan latino-american Wildlife Diseases congress and the Kalaan-Kab association Mexican congress on wildlife diseases.
The aim of the conference was to highlight the importance of ecological changes and biodiversity on emerging infectious diseases and neglected tropical diseases. The case of Buruli ulcer was discussed. The work on Buruli ulcer is part of the research activities of the LabEx CEBA. It is an emerging skin disease caused by mycobacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, where tropical aquatic ecosystems represent its natural reservoir. The main effects are necrosis of the skin and underlying tissues. Studies have shown that infections occur as a result of a combination of several cascading factors, including short- and medium-term rainfall patterns and natural habitat modification through deforestation and land use. These conditions in turn induce changes in the composition of communities of host and non-host species involved in the transmission of the bacillus to the human. This work highlights the importance of taking better account of the proximal and distal factors and determinants involved in the emergence of new infectious diseases.
The second conference2 was at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, and placed under the auspices of this University, the French Embassy in Mexico, IRD and LabEx CEBA.
The objective of the conference was to present the role of climate change in the emergence and the outbreak of infectious diseases worldwide. It appears that there is currently insufficient long-term data to link diseases to climate change. For Jean-François Guégan, it is therefore important to classify these data in the long term, particularly in the framework of programs similar to the LabEx CEBA. It is also difficult to associate the evolution of the spatial distribution of certain diseases or their vector and reservoir hosts with climate change because there are other determinants that interact to explain the presence and distribution of infectious cases. Moreover, emerging infectious diseases in the world are mostly due to the destruction of natural habitats by human activities and the consequent cascade consequences (loss or modification of biological diversity, increase in contacts, etc.). To improve the results, it would be advisable to develop long-term research and by jointly analysing the evolution of animal communities and their microbiota subjected to human pressures.
1 Buzzing emerging infectious diseases and neglected tropical diseases: ecological changes and biodiversity matter! San Cristobal de las Casas, 26 juillet 2017, Mexique.
2 Is climate change responsible for the actual emergence and spread of infectious diseases worldwide? Mexico City, 1 août 2017, Mexique.